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Making Sense of Grammar
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什麼是關係子句(Relative Clause)?
asked Nov 28, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (23,690 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin

1 Answer

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關係子句是一種附屬子句,是由關係代名詞 who, which, that 所標示的形容詞子句,在句子裡扮演修飾名詞的角色,對相關的名詞加以限定、形容、解釋、說明。

舉例來說,I met a friend who has five children. 這個句子中,who 子句的作用為限定前面的 friend。

這樣的關係子句會由關係代名詞代替子句中缺少的名詞(可能是主詞或受詞),本尊則指向前面的名詞。

因此,I met a friend who has five children. 可以拆成兩個完整的句子:

I met a friend.

The friend who has five children. 

由此可見,who 是關係子句內的主詞,而真正的主詞則是 friend。

關係代名詞代替子句內消失的名詞,因此也有「格」的差別,在關係子句中當作主詞就用主格 who,扮演受詞則用受格 whom,不過代替無生物的 which 則沒有格的區別。

關係代名詞 who 在關係子句中作為主詞:I ran into a colleague who was shopping for a cellphone.

關係代名詞 whom 在關係子句中作為受詞:I ran into a colleague whom I truly admire.

關係代名詞 whose 在關係子句中作為所有者:I ran into a colleague whose car was parked next to mine.

當 who/ which 作主詞時,一定不可省略,但是作受詞時,則可以省略,因為這時省略關係代名詞不會造成理解困難。 

answered Nov 28, 2017 by admin (23,690 points)
edited Nov 30, 2017 by admin
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