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Making Sense of Grammar
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為什麼假設句以「過去式表達違反現在的事實,過去完成式表達違反過去的事實」?
asked Nov 30, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,240 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin | 794 views

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在「條件句為何要以現在取代未來」這個問題中,我們探討了「真實性」的標記與動詞時態的關聯性。

除了條件句以外,假設句也屬於「非真實」的句型類別。假設句為「與事實相反」的假設。所謂「事實」,是「真實已知的情況」,必然在過去或現在出現。「與事實相反」的假設就是與「目前狀態」或「過去事實」相反之陳述。

既然與事實相違,在時態上就必須和表達「事實」的標記有所區別。

英文選擇用時間上的錯亂(時態倒退),來標記「違反事實」

違反現在的事實→以過去式標記

現在事實:She is a girl.

違反現在事實:I wish she was/ were a boy.

(were 是形式固定的「反事實」標記,不隨人稱變更)

例句:If she was a man, she would join the army.

違反過去的事實→以過去完成式標記

過去事實:She didn't come home yesterday.

違反過去事實:I wish she had come home yesterday.

例句:If she had come home yesterday, she would have enjoyed the dinner with us.

我們會做「與事實相反」的假設,通常是希望「過去的事實」能改寫,或為了「已成事實」的因果關係懊惱追悔,因而冀望出現「與事實相反」的因果關係:

Fact: We didn't go to the concert, so we didn't meet Jay Chou.

Non-fact: If we had gone to the concert, we would have met Jay Chou.

事與願違的情況下,同一個願望,投射在不同的時間點,就要有不同的標記:

要是你現在早一點告訴我,問題可能解決了!

→ The problem would be solved if you could tell me that earlier.

要是你當時早一點告訴我,問題可能早就解決了!

→ The problem would have been solved if you could have told me that earlier.

從以上例句中,我們也發現,與過去事實相反的句子有固定的標記形式:

主詞 + may/might/would/could/should + have +PP

這種標示方式結合了兩種語意:使用表示「非真實」的「情態助動詞」(may, might, would, could, should)指出句中所述的「非事實」;動詞時態則使用「完成式原形」,表示事情應該發生於現在之前。

Related question: 條件句和假設句與事件真實性有何關聯?

https://goo.gl/gkxE9R

answered Nov 30, 2017 by admin (25,240 points)
edited Mar 26, 2018 by admin

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