City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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"any"只能用在否定句或疑問句嗎?
asked Nov 30, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,240 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin | 5,000 views

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「any 只能用在否定句和疑問句」的說法並不完全,也不正確。

舉例來說,"That cat will chase any dog." 和 "You may take any of these." 這兩個句子既非否定句,意非疑問句,但仍可使用 any。這是因為在英語中「真實」與「非真實」的概念主導了any 的用法

我們不能說 "Anyone did it." 或 "Anything happened.",因為 any 不具有指涉性,沒有確切的指涉對象,所以不能用在真實發生、必然有確定參與者的事件中;反之,我們會說 "Somebody did it." 或 "Something happened.",因為 someone, somebody, something 雖然不是我們可指認的人、事、物,還是只設了確定的某人、某事、某物,只是我們不曉得是誰罷了。

如果事件尚未發生,屬於「非事實」,那麼「誰」都有可能參與其中,這時「沒有明確指涉對象」的 any 就派上用場了:

Anybody may come. → 任何人都可能來

Anything may happen. → 任何事情都可能發生

總而言之,否定句和疑問句的性質皆屬「非事實」,所以才會搭配無指涉性的 any。然而,any 的用法不僅限於否定句和疑問句,情態句、命令句、條件句、未來式等任何屬於「非事實」的句式皆可使用 any。

情態句:You may take any of these.

命令句:Take any of these!

條件句:If you take any of these, he will be really mad.

未來式:I will do anything for you.

related question: 哪些句式可以用來表達「非事實」?

https://goo.gl/SDWxWU

answered Nov 30, 2017 by admin (25,240 points)
selected Aug 21, 2020 by Mickey

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