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Making Sense of Grammar
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over的用法
asked Mar 14, 2019 in Questions about English Grammar by 118030200612xst (160 points) | 53 views

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语言学者Lakoff(1987:435-36)所举的一些over用法:

The plane is flying over the hill.

Sam is walking over the hill.

Sam lives over the hill.

The wall fell over.

Sam turned the page over.

Sam turned over.

She spread the tablecloth over the table.

The guards were posted all over the hill.

The play is over.

Do it over, but don’t overdo it.

根据Lakoff的分析,over的基本语义是above和across的意思,就像下图所表示的概念:

○————————→

【Landmark】

over所有的用法都是这个基本概念的延伸和转换。如第一句The plane flew over the hill.,表示飞机从山的上空飞过。

若换成The bird flew over the fence.,表示鸟从篱笆的上空飞过。

所以over牵涉到物体移动的路径(path),这个路径是above and across a landmark。但路径和地标都有延伸变化的可能,这就是多样语义的来源,如以下各图所示:

Sam walked over the hill. 路径就有些不一样,Sam的路径在山的上面。

当我们说Sam lives over the hill,指的是路径最终的端点,Sam的房子在路径的终点,即山的另一边。

如果是The painting is hung over the fireplace.,就变成静态的关系,即图片悬在火炉上方。

再进一步,The tablecloth is over the table.,会变成覆盖的语义,表示桌布覆盖在桌子上面。

同理,当我们说The guards were all over the place.,路径的概念就变成点状的分布,每一个守卫占据地点上面的一个分布点。

或者over的路径也可变成连续的绵状延伸,I searched all over the place.,路径在搜索范围内连续行进。

这些空间的路径概念进一步成为其他较抽象用法的依循:

The play is over. →结束了→沿用路径终点的概念

I can’t get over with it. →克服、渡过→也是路径延伸通过的意思

空间图像是理解记忆的基础,介系词大人当然不可不知!

——劉美君. (2012). 英文文法有道理! 重新認識英文文法觀念. 聯經.​

answered Oct 21 by Ariel (8,820 points)

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1,013 questions
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7,389 users