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Making Sense of Grammar
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何謂給予收授動詞(Verbs of transference)?
asked Dec 5, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (23,690 points)

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給予收授動詞通常用於表達物件的傳遞接收。

這類動詞的典型語意在描述兩方之間「給予/接受」的互動關係,涉及物件的傳遞交接:

I gave / sent / mailed a letter to him. 

這類事件必然牽扯三個角色:給予者、給予物以及接收者。一般來說,給予物為直接受控的東西,動作對它的影響較為直接,所以給予物是直接受詞。接收者則是間接得到物件,所以接收者為間接受詞,用 to 來標示其 receiver 的角色。但是同一個事件還有另一種說法:

She gave / sent / mailed him a letter.

這種句式直接把「接收者」放在動詞後,強調接收者的「受益」角色。這種受益關係還可以擴及其他「非授與」動詞:

I baked him a cake.

I bought him a pair of shoes.

至於該選擇哪一種句式,與參與角色「孰重孰輕」有關。訊息傳遞傾向「已知」先於未知,藉由熟悉的帶出不熟悉的,「新訊息」通常最後才出現。

在接收物已知的前提下:

A: Who will you hive the book to?

B: I will give it to John.

在接收者已知的前提下:

A: What will you give to John?

B: I will give him a book.

answered Dec 5, 2017 by admin (23,690 points)
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