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附屬子句有哪些標記形式?
asked Dec 5, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,240 points) | 401 views

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標示附屬子句的方式有以下三種:

(1)附屬連接詞(subordinator)

表示因果:because, since, for the reason that, so....

表示條件:if, only if, in case that, provided that, as long as...

表示時間:when, while, as soon as, at the time that....

以附屬連接詞標記的附屬子句,可以放在主要子句的前面或後面:若附屬子句在前,主要子句在後,須加上逗點隔開,以提示「重點在後面」;若主要子句在前,附屬子句在後,則不用加逗點,符合英語「重點先講」的原則:

We will go camping if the weather is good.

If the weather is good, we will go camping.

(2)無時間標記的分詞或不定詞(non-finite V)

分詞或不定詞構句都沒有「時間」標記,不能單獨報導事件的重點或時間,也是一種附屬的形式:

We went camping last week, spending some time with nature.

We went camping last week, to spend some time with nature.

分詞表達「同時進行」,不定詞表達「目的」,都是依附於主要子句的附屬形式。這種附屬關係是共用同一個主詞,主要子句的主角就是分詞或不定詞的頭,兩者必須一致。

(3)帶有名詞ˇ具或關係子句的標記(complementizer)

動詞要求的補語為子句時,通常以指示代名詞 that 做為補語標記。that 所帶的名詞子句為另一事件,作為「思想溝通」類事件所要求的內容補語:

He thinks that English is easy.

此外,關係子句也是一種附屬子句,作為修飾名詞之用,通常以關係代名詞來標記(who/ which):

I saw the cat [who was chasing a dog.] → 修飾受詞

The cat [who was chasing the dog] went into the house. → 修飾主詞

answered Dec 5, 2017 by admin (25,240 points)

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1,013 questions
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7,389 users