City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Aug 15 in Questions about English Grammar by Mickey (7,400 points) | 50 views

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定语从句又称关系子句,放在名词后面,用来修饰说明该名词。形式上由关系代名词(who, which, that)来引导:

I met a friend [who helped me a lot].  à who代替前面人物名词作关系子句的主词

This is the book [which interests me].  à which代替前面的无生名词作关系子句主词

This is the car [that I bought ___ yesterday].  àthat代替the car作关系子句受词

修饰人物名词要用who;无生名词则用 which或that,二者可互换:

This is the car which/that is most popular. à which或that代替主词时不可省略

This is the car(which/that)I bought yesterday. à which或that代替受词时可省略

功能上,定语从句分为限定非限定从句两种用法。

限定从句是用来限定说明先行名词的属性, 意即在所有可能人选中,选择限定一人一物来修饰说明:

I met a friend (out of all friends) who helped me a lot.

This is the book (out of all books) which I bought yesterday.

非限定从句是用来作同位修饰,只此一人一物,没有别的可能人选,因此无需限定,形式上要用逗号为标记:

I love my father, who helped me a lot.  à There is only one father!

关系代名词which还可用来指代前面提到的整件事(句子),形式上也用逗号分开:

I bought a new car, which costs me a fortune. à which指“买新车”这件事

He found a new job, which is indeed a good news. à which指“找到新工作”

以上内容由刘美君教授亲自答疑

answered Aug 15 by Mickey (7,400 points)

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1,013 questions
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7,389 users