City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Oct 21 in Questions about English Grammar by Ariel (8,820 points) | 15 views

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描述同一事件的方式往往不只一种,可由不同角度切入,比如“拥有vs.属于”的概念,用own和belong to就是从两个不同的参与角度切入;“买与卖”(sell vs. buy)的区别也是如此。选择用不同角度来描述一个事件,在动词形式上的选择也就不一样:

I own the car. →The car belongs to me.

I bought the car from Tom. →Tom sold the car to me.

有一些物理现象也可能有两种不同的描述角度,可选择用自动或被动的视角:

自动:The ice melts. →强调冰本身自动融化

被动:The ice is melted. →强调冰是受到外力影响而融化

此外,若将真正负责的人加进来,强调“他动”,就成为一般的及物句式:

他动:He melted the ice. →强调是他把冰融化了

这些动词表达明显的状态改变,有“他懂”、“自动”与“被动”三种可能。下面的三种句式帮助我们表达三种不同的描述角度:

他动(及物)事件:John sank the ship. John broke the vase.

自动变化:The ship sank. The vase broke.

被动改变:The ship was sunk. The vase was broken.

——劉美君. (2012). 英文文法有道理! 重新認識英文文法觀念. 聯經.

answered Oct 21 by Ariel (8,820 points)

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