City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Oct 29 in Questions about English Grammar by Ariel (8,820 points)
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一般的分词构句常使用进行貌,表示“共时发生”的关系。这和叙述结构分为前景焦点(foreground)与背景说明(background)有关。通常作为前景的主要事件会有清楚的时间标记(过去、现在、未来、或习惯),而作为背景的次要事件即可用进行貌,表示同一时间发生的“共时”事件:

I mopped the floor and cleaned the bathroom, listening to the Bee Gees.

I mopped the floor and cleaned the bathroom while listening to the Bee Gees.

主要句子带有过去式标记的动作,用来说明主线内容,表达前景焦点;而进行中的现在分词是附属子句,交代“共时发生”的背景事件。

进行貌表动作“进行”,进行的动作必然“存在”,因此动名词也用进行-ing的形式。本书前面提到开始/结束及享受/感谢类动词要求进行貌的补语,表达如同名词般存在或进行的动作:

He started listening to Bee Gees.

He stopped listening to Bee Gees.

I enjoyed meeting with you.

I look forward to meeting with you.

进行式也表达“持续”进行,ongoing的事件通常与某个时间重叠,只适用于“有限的”一段时间内,很难长久不变一直进行。以下两个问答一个用习惯式,一个用进行式,含义明显不同:

Q: What does he do for a living?

A: He works at a gas station.

→习惯式表明他长期在加油站工作,是较稳定长久的工作。

Q: What’s he doing these days?

A: He’s working at a gas station.

→进行式表明他这一阵子在做的事,只是目前的工作。

同理,以下两句的意思也不一样:

The sun rises in the east. →习惯式:每天如此

The sun is rising in the east. →进行貌:此刻正在发生

那要如何表达“习惯性的进行”?在时间上重复出现的条件下,进行式也可用于表达“某情况下重复进行的习惯”,试比较这两个句子:

片刻进行:She is watching TV right now. →此刻正在看电视

习惯性进行:Whenever I came in, she would be watching TV. →屡次重复发生

——劉美君. (2012). 英文文法有道理! 重新認識英文文法觀念. 聯經.

answered Oct 29 by Ariel (8,820 points)
edited Oct 29 by Ariel

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