City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Nov 2, 2020 in Questions about English Grammar by Ariel (17,790 points) | 82 views

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“主要动词”(main V)的功能是负责表达主要动作、标记主要时间,因此形式上是唯一带有“时态标记”的动词(tensed V)。“带有时态标记”就成为“主要动词”最重要的特权。下例中只有saw-past tense带有时间标记,所以是主要动词:

I saw past a cat chase a dog.

I saw past a cat chasing a dog.

两个动词中,只有saw标有清楚的过去式,是唯一带有“时间标记”的完全动词(finite V);其后的原形动词chase或是进行貌chasing都没有时间标记,无法单独用来描述发生的事,称为不完全动词(non-finite V)。

下面两个例句中,主要动词有清楚的时间标记,表示主要动作,然后以不完全动词来交代目的(不定词)或共时的次要动作(现在分词):

A cat was chasing a dog [to drive him out of the yard].→目的

A cat was chasing a dog, [driving him out of the yard].→共时动作

——劉美君. (2012). 英文文法有道理! 重新認識英文文法觀念. 聯經.

answered Nov 2, 2020 by Ariel (17,790 points)

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1,162 questions
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