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Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Nov 5, 2020 in Questions about English Grammar by Ariel (28,250 points) | 151 views

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动词加ing,在时态上表示“进行”,进行的事件必然“存在”。因此V-ing的形式同时表达“存在”和“进行”两种语义。动名词就是将动作“名词化”,成为动词性的名词,以便强调动作的进行和存在。但为什么动词要变成名词呢?原因在于:动词和名词有本质的差异,动词倏乎即变,名词恒常存在,动词加了-ing以后,才有了名词性,具有时空上持久存在的特性,才能代替名词使用。所以,当事件语义要求名词补语时,动词就要转为动名词(名物化的一种):

Enjoy + N → Enjoy + V-ing

I enjoy the book. → I enjoy reading the book. 

I enjoy the spa. → I enjoy taking the spa. 

I enjoy this cup of coffee. → I enjoy drinking this cup of coffee. 

“欣羡类”动词的对象必须是名词性的,藉由 V-ing 的形式可以将动词转变成“活动名词”(event nominal),作enjoy的补语:

I enjoy playing the violin. → 享受“拉”小提琴

同样的语义要求也适用于动作的开始、结束、或完成,当这些动词的对象牵涉“动作”时,必须用动名词V-ing,因为开始了的动作自然在进行中,结束的事件则必然要先存在,完成的工作必须曾经进行,因此形式上都要用V-ing:

She started the song. → She started singing the song

He stopped the class. → He stopped teaching the class

She finished the class. → She finished teaching the class. → completed the job !

请注意:finish不是结束,而是完成工作

I've finished the book. → I've read or written the book. 

——劉美君. (2012). 英文文法有道理重新認識英文文法觀念. 聯經.

answered Nov 5, 2020 by Ariel (28,250 points)

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1,332 questions
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8,461 users