City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Nov 9, 2020 in Questions about English Grammar by Ariel (34,480 points) | 1,283 views

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基本上,动词的语义范围不脱可观察的“活动”(activity / action)或可感知的“状态”(situation / state)。“活动”是动态的、随时间推移而有改变;“状态”是静态的、无明显的进程、较持久不变。动态动词又可分外在的体力活动(如run)或内在的心力活动(如think);静态动词则有感知(如know)或情绪状态(如happy):

动态动词·活动:

体力活动:追chase、赶catch、跑run、跳jump……

心力活动:想念miss、考虑consider、担心sorry……

静态动词·状态:

感知状态:知道know、了解understand、拥有have、忘记forget……

情绪状态:喜欢like、嫉妒envy、生气angry、高兴glad、伤心sad……

动态和静态最大的差别就在:动态动词牵涉到力的运用,可随时间不断变动、不断前进,所以可以搭配表示ongoing的“进行式”。静态动词则是较持久、较抽象的心理或认知状态,不涉及体力心力的运作、不会随时间改变,就不能用在进行式:

动态可进行:

Jeremy Lin was playing in the stadium.

He was passing and shooting the ball.

The fans were cheering for him.

静态无进行:

The fans were crazy about Jeremy Lin.

They all love and respect him.

动态与静态的对比:

The fans were shouting: Jeremy, we love you!

——劉美君. (2012). 英文文法有道理重新認識英文文法觀念. 聯經.

answered Nov 9, 2020 by Ariel (34,480 points)

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