City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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asked Dec 15, 2020 in Questions about Chinese Grammar by Ariel (16,050 points) | 16 views

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In subject-predicate sentences, the subject may act as either initiator or recipient of an action:

(1) The subject as initiator:

我去年学驾驶。

Wǒ qù nián xué jià shǐ。

I took driving lessons last year.

他在打扫房间。

Tā zài dǎ sǎo fáng jiān。

He is tidying the room.

小红写了两封信。

Xiǎo hóng xiě le liǎng fēng xìn。

Xiao Hong wrote two letters.

她天天拉小提琴。

Tā tiān tiān lā xiǎo tí qín。

She plays the violin every day.

(2) The subject as recipient:

When the subject is a recipient, verbs such as 受到 shòudào ‘be a beneficiary or target of’, 遭到 zāo dào ‘suffer from’, 得到 dédào ‘gain’, ‘be a winner of’, are used:

学生受到老师的表扬。

Xué shēng shòu dào lǎo shī de biǎo yáng。

The students were commended by the teacher. (lit. The students received the teacher’s praise.)

她家遭到盗窃。

Tā jiā zāo dào dào qiè。

Her house was burgled. (lit. Her house suffered a burglary.)

运动员得到一千镑奖金。

Yùn dòng yuán dé dào yī qiān bàng jiǎng jīn。

The athlete received a prize of one thousand pounds.

中国遭到特大洪水。

Zhōng guó zāo dào tè dà hóng shuǐ。

China suffered a huge flood.

[1] Yip, P. C., Rimmington, D., Xiaoming, Z., & Henson, R. (2009). Basic Chinese: a grammar and workbook. Taylor & Francis.

answered Dec 15, 2020 by Ariel (16,050 points)

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1,133 questions
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7,389 users