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Making Sense of Grammar
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動詞時態和語意有什麼關係?
asked Jan 16, 2018 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,170 points) | 376 views

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一般而言,狀態動詞傳達靜態語意,不會搭配進行式使用。不過還是有些狀態動詞可以加上 -ing 而「動態化」。只是這麼一來,動詞的語意已明顯改變。語言學家 Givón 舉出下面三個動詞為例來說明:

(1) 知覺狀態動詞 see

I see her. → see 表達知覺狀態,所以不能說 I'm seeing her now.

不過我們也會聽到以下用法:

I'm seeing my boss first thing tomorrow.

He's seeing the guests right now.

→ 此處的 see 不是用來表達知覺狀態,而是「拜訪」或「會面」,因此可以加上 -ing。

(2) 連接狀態動詞 be

John is tall. → be 表達存在狀態,所以不能說 John is being tall.

John is being obnoxious. → 此處的 be 動詞不再用來表達存在狀態,而是用來描述主詞「暫時表現某種狀態」(act as), 因此可以加上 -ing。

(3) 所有狀態動詞 have

Mary has long legs. → have 表達擁有關係,所以不能說 Mary is having long legs.

Mary was having dinner at six. → have 表達「吃」

Mary was having her first baby at six. → have 表達「生產」

Mary was having a good time in Hawaii. → have 表達「享受」

→ 這三個句子中的 have 不在用來表達「所有」關係,因此可以加上 -ing。

answered Jan 16, 2018 by admin (25,170 points)

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799 questions
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