City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
0 like 0 dislike
24 views
asked Nov 16, 2021 in Questions about Chinese Grammar by M (4,230 points) | 24 views

1 Answer

0 like 0 dislike

Temporal adverbs represent the temporal properties of an event and can be categorized according to the temporal facets they pertain to. Types of temporal adverbs are listed below,

Duration adverbs represent a length of time during which actions or states last, including 永远 yong3yuan3 ‘forever’, 始终 shi3zhong1 ‘always’, 一向 yi1xiang4 ‘always’, 一直 yi1zhi2 ‘always’, 仍旧 reng2jiu4 ‘still’, 仍然 reng2ran2 ‘still’ (for a long duration), and 暂且 ' zhan4qie3 for the time being’ (for a short duration).

Some adverbs describe the aspectual facet of an event, such as 曾 ceng2 ‘once’, 曾经 ceng2jing1 ‘once’, 已经 yi3jing1 ‘already’, and 早已 zao3yi3 ‘long time ago’ for the realis mood; 快 kuai4 ‘about to’, 就要 jiu4yao4 ‘(be) going to’, 迟早 chi2zao3 ‘sooner or later’, and 早晚 zao3wan3 ‘sooner or later’ for the irrealis mood; and 正 zheng4 ‘currently’ and 正在 zheng4zai4 ‘currently’ for the progressive aspect.、

Frequency adverbs represent the frequency of an event taking place within a timeframe, such as 老(是) lao3 (shi4) ‘always’ and 总(是) zong3 (shi4) ‘always’ for high frequency; 时 shi2 ‘often’, 常 chang2 ‘often’, 时时 shi2shi2 ‘often’, 经常 jing1chang2 ‘often’, 常常 chang2chang2 ‘often’, 渐渐  jian4jian4 ‘gradually’, 频频 pin2pin2 ‘frequently’, 连连 lian2lian2 ‘consecutively’, and 日渐 ri4jian4 ‘day by day’ for middle frequency; and 偶然 ou3ran2 ‘by accident, occasionally’, 偶尔(而) ou3er3 ‘occasionally’, and 有时 you3shi2 ‘sometimes’ for low frequency.

Order adverbs deal with the order of events. They include 先 xian1 ‘first’, 接着 jie1zhe0 ‘afterwards’, 然后 ran2hou4 ‘and then’, 依次 y1ici4 ‘following the order,’ 随后 sui2hou4 ‘afterwards’, 随即 sui2ji2 ‘right after’, 接连 jie1lian2 ‘consecutively’, 相继 xiang1ji4 ‘one after another’, and 陆续 lu4xu4 ‘one after another’ for different aspects of sequencing.

Repetition adverbs address the recurrences of an event, including 又 you4 ‘again’, 也 ye3 ‘also’, 再 zai4 ‘again, once more’, 还 hai2 ‘more, still’, 重 chong2 ‘again’, 一再 yi1zai4 ‘again and again’, 再三 zai4san1 ‘again and again’, and 重新 chong2xin1 ‘once again’.

Reference

Biq, Yung-O and Chu-ren Huang. 2016. Adverbs. In A Reference Grammar of Chinese, eds. by Chu-Ren Huang and Dingxu Shi. Cambridge University Press.

answered Nov 16, 2021 by M (4,230 points)

1,521 questions

1,797 answers

23 comments

17,585 users

1,521 questions
1,797 answers
23 comments
17,585 users