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如何區分條件句和假設語氣?

asked Feb 26, 2018 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,240 points) | 1,394 views

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條件句為在「未來」有可能發生的情況條件,但不確定是否成真。標記上,以沒有特定時間標記的「習慣式」表達「可能的條件」,以「未來式」表達「未來結果」:

If you work hard, you will get a good grade.

If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the outing.

假設語氣亦即「與事實相反」的假設,所謂「事實」,是「真實已知的情況」,必然在現在或過去出現。「與事實相反」的假設就是與「目前狀態」或「過去事實」相反之希望。既與事實相反,在時態上就得和表達「事實」的標記有所區別,英文選擇用「錯亂」(將時態倒退)來標示「違反事實」。

違反現在事實 → 以過去式標記

現在事實:She is a girl.

違反現在事實:I wish she was/ were a boy. (were 式形式固定的「反事實」標記,不隨人稱變更)

 造句:If she were a man, she would join the army.

違反過去事實 → 以過去完成式標記

過去事實:She didn't come home yesterday.

違反過去事實:I wish she had come home yesterday. 

造句:If she had come home yesterday, she would have enjoyed the dinner with us.

Related question: 條件句和假設句與事件真實性有何關聯?

https://goo.gl/cmVe86

answered Feb 26, 2018 by admin (25,240 points)
edited Mar 26, 2018 by admin

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1,073 questions
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7,389 users