Firstly, they are different forms of structural particle "de", but there is a fundamental difference to distinguish. "的" is always used for modifying nouns, it is also named pre-nominal; "地" is often used with adverbial phrases, it is also called pre-verbal; "得" usually used with complements, it is also named complement taking.
For pre-nominal "的", It is usually used before the subject and object. The words in front of "的" are generally used to modify and limit the things after "的" and explain how the stuff after "的" is. The structural form typically is: adjective, noun (pronoun) + "的" + noun.
- 小美很喜歡小明，完全是因為他 (pronoun) 的 帥氣 (adjective to noun)
In example I, the word "帥氣" has become a noun from an adjective. As mentioned above, "的" is also named pre-nominal, so there is nominalization in the adjective "帥氣". Therefore, all words after "的" will generally become nouns.
For pre-verbal地, it is the symbol of adverbial. "地" is generally used before the predicate (verb, adjective). The words in front of "地" are usually used to describe the movements after "地", which shows how the action after "地" is. The structural form are: adjective (adverb)+ ”地” +verb (adjective)
- 小朋友快樂 (adjective) 地 玩耍 (verb)。
- 天空漸漸 (time adverb) 地 黑 (adjective) 了起來。
For complement taking得, it is used behind a verb or adjective, connecting the consequences or degree of the result of complement. Therefore, it is a symbol of complement. "得" is generally used behind the predicate. The words after "得" are usually used to supplement how the actions in the front of "得" are. The structure form are: verbs (adjectives)+ ”得” +adjective; and verbs (adjective) + “得” + verb phrases
- 小朋友玩 (verb) 得 很開心
- 小欣美 (adjective) 得 令大家都搶著要坐她旁邊 (VP)。