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Making Sense of Grammar
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has been 和 has been to 有何差異?

asked Apr 4, 2018 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,240 points)
edited Apr 13, 2018 by admin | 1,526 views

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be 動詞為狀態動詞,因為狀態有延續性,所以狀態動詞的完成貌之動作持續到參照時間:

She has been a teacher.

→ 現在之前完成了 be a teacher 的狀態(已開始並持續到現在)

→ 因狀態具有持續性,她現在仍是老師

但是 She has been 和 she has been to 是不同的,後者多了 to, 句子的語意是每個成分的加總,所以 to 的語意也要考量進去。

He has been to Japan.

→ 曾經處於「在日本」的狀態

→ 他去過日本

至於人是否現在還在日本,按照語意來說,既然 been to 是「曾經在」的意思,說話當下人應該在日本之外的地方。不過這必須根據「說話當下」的確切地點來判斷。

舉例來說,接機的人可能會問一個剛抵達日本的旅客:

Have you been to Japan before?

Yes, I have been to Japan twice, before this trip.

answered Apr 4, 2018 by admin (25,240 points)
edited Apr 13, 2018 by admin

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