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Making Sense of Grammar
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如何區分「動態動詞」和「靜態動詞」?
asked Nov 2, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,520 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin | 8,286 views

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基本上,動詞的語意範圍分為可觀察的「活動」(activity / action)或可感知的「狀態」(situation / state)。「活動」是動態的,隨時間推移而有改變;「狀態」是無明顯的靜態進程、較持久不變。動態動詞又可分外在的體力活動(如 run)或內在的心力活動(如 think);靜態動詞則有感知(如 know)或情緒狀態(如 happy): 


◆ 動態動詞 

-體力活動:追 chase、趕 catch、跑 run、跳 jump⋯⋯ 

-心力活動:想念 miss、考慮 consider、擔心 worry⋯⋯ 

 
◆ 靜態動詞 - 狀態:

-感知狀態:知道 know、了解 understand、擁有 have、忘記 forget⋯⋯

-情緒狀態:喜歡 like、嫉妒 envy、生氣 angry、高興 glad、傷心 sad⋯⋯ 

動態和靜態最大的差別在於動態動詞牽涉到力的運用,可隨時間不斷變動前進, 所以可以搭配表示 ongoing 的「進行式」。靜態動詞則是較持久、較抽象的心理或認知狀態,不涉及體力或心力的運作、不會隨時間改變,就不能用在進行式: 


動態可進行:

Jeremy Lin was playing in the stadium. 

He was passing and shooting the ball. 

The fans were cheering for him. 


靜態無進行 :

The fans were crazy about Jeremy Lin.

They all love and respect him. 


動態與靜態的對比:

The fans were shouting: Jeremy, we love you! 

answered Nov 2, 2017 by admin (25,520 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin

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