City University of Hong Kong CLASS CLASS
Making Sense of Grammar
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定语从句的用法
asked Mar 11 in Questions about Chinese Grammar by 116070100133cry (270 points) 2 flags

18 Answers

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定语 从句由关系词(关系代词、关系副词)引导,关系代词、关系副词位于定语从句句首。又称为关系从句,顾名思义在句中有着修饰限定的作用,可修饰单一的词(名词或代词),也可修饰一个句子。其中被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词,定语从句由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引导,被定语从句修饰的词叫作先行词。

关系代词:who, which, who, whom, whose
关系副词:when, where, why, how
关系词的作用:除引导从句外,还代替先行词在从句中充当一定的成分,如主语,宾语,定语,状语等。
answered Mar 14 by 117030100323cfx (350 points)
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定语从句在整个句子中担任定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
answered Mar 14 by 118010100323 gc (190 points)
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用来修饰前面的某些词语,一般前面用逗号隔开
answered Mar 14 by 118060100120ldy (330 points)
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定语从句,又称为关系从句,有着修饰限定的作用,可修饰名词或代词,也可修饰一个句子。其中被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词,定语从句被关系词引导,而关系词又有关系代词和关系副词。

关系代词:who,which,who,whom,whose

关系副词:when,,where,why,how
answered Mar 14 by 118060400118wl (330 points)
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在复合句中 , 修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句 , 被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词 , 引导定语从句的有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that等和关系副词where, when, why等 , 关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。
1.由who引导的定语从句中 , who用作主语 , 如 : This is the boy who often helps me.
2.由whom引导的定语从句中,whom用作宾语,如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home.
3.由whose引导的定语从句中 , whose用作定语 , 如 : Do you know the girl whose skirt is white?
4.由which引导的定语从句中,which用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语,如:
The room in which there is a machine is a work shop.
The river which is in front of my house is very clean.
This is the pen which you want.
注意 :
(1)whom, which用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放在 whom、which之前 , 也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如: He is the very person whom we must take good care of.
(2)引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词which,不用that,如:I have lost
my bag, which I like very much.
(3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。
5.由that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如:
The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.
注意在下面几种情况下必须用 that引导定语从句。
(1)先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等 , 如 :
All that we have to do is to practise English.
(2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,如
The first letter that I got from him will be kept.
(3)先行词被all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some等修饰 , 如
I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.
(4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时如
He is the only person that I want to talk with.
(5)先行词既有人又有物时,如:
They talked about persons and things that they met.
(6)当句中已有who时 , 为避免重复 , 如 : Who is the man that is giving us the
class?
6.由when, where, why引导的定语从句,如:
I don't know the reason why he was late.
This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.
I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time.
注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用 that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导。This is the house Which /that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)
7. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
(1)限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, of which等,这些关系代词都不能省略。
(2)非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明 , 没有这种从句 , 不影响主句意思的完整 , 一般用逗号把主句和从句分开 , 关系代词用 which,不用that;指人时可用who,如 : I have two brothers, who are both students.
answered Mar 14 by 118040600212zxc (380 points)
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定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
关系副词有:when, where, why等。
18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句
关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
1)who, whom, that
这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.
他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)
2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:
They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。
3)which, that
它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)
18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句
关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)when, where, why
关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
answered Mar 14 by 118070100116txl (330 points)
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在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。如:
Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting just now?
That is the house where he lived ten years ago.
定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词;定语从句一般用关系代词或关系副词来引导,关系词放在先行词与定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作从句中的一个成分。
引导定语从句的关系代词有:that, who, whom, whose, which;
关系副词有:when, where, why.

answered Mar 14 by 116030500109wmm (340 points)
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定语从句是用来修饰,描述或提供有关名词,代词或整个主句信息的从句.它在整个句子中起形容词的作用.被修饰的名词,语法上称作先行词.从句由关系代词或关系副词引导.关系代词和关系副词不仅起引导定语从句,连接先行词的作用,同时还充当定语从句中的一个成分,如:主语,宾语,介词宾语,表语,定语或状语等.定语从句由下列关系代词和关系副词引导:
(1) who, whom, that
(2) which, that
(3) whose
(4) when Where why
1. 修饰,指代人物
关系代词who, that 引导的从句修饰,指代人物,在从句中作主语.
(1) 关系代词作主语
(1) I thank the woman.
She helped me.
a. I thank the woman who helped me.
b. I thank the woman that helped me.
(2) 关系代词作宾语
关系代词whom, who, that 在从句中作动词宾语时,修饰,指代人物.Whom 是宾格形式, 常用于较正式的英语中.who和that 常用于口语和非正式的英语中.在口语和非正式英语中更多的情况下,作动词宾语的关系代词常被省略.
(2)The man told me to come back.
I saw him in the office.
a. The man whom I saw in the office told me to come back.
b. The man who I saw in the office told me to come back.
c. The man that I saw in the office told me to come back.
d. The man I saw in the office told me to come back.
我在办公室见到的那为男士叫我回去.
注意:1. 引导从句的关系代词一定要放在从句的最前面,例如: 从句whom I saw in the office,虽
然关系代词whom 在句子中作动词的宾语,也应放在从句的最前面.
2. 从句应尽可能地紧跟在所修饰的名词后面.从句whom I saw in the office是用来修饰the man,
所以应放在the man 后面.
(3) 关系代词作介词宾语
当关系代词在从句中作介词的宾语时,正式英语中,往往将介词提到关系代词前面.
(3) The woman spoke French.
I traveled with her.
a. The woman with whom I travelled spoke French.
和我一起旅行的那位女士讲法语.
注意:在这类句子中修饰,指代人物时,只能用whom .关系代词不可以用who 或that. 也不可以省略
关系代词.
在口语和非正式英语中,介词往往放在原来的位置,即:在谓语动词之后.在这种情况下,关系代
词可以是who/ whom/that, 也可以省略.
b. The woman whom I travelled with spoke English.
c. The woman who I travelled with spoke English.
d. The woman that I travelled with spoke English.
e. The woman I travelled with spoke English.
2. 修饰,指代事物
关系代词that, which引导的从句用来修饰,指代事物,它们在从句中可以作句子的主语也可以作宾
语.
(1) 关系代词作主语
例句: Did you hear about the earthquake
It happened in San Francisco last week.
a. Did you hear about the earthquake that happened in San Francisco last week
b. Did you hear about the earthquake which happened in San Francisco last week
你听说上星期在旧金山发生的地震了吗
关系代词that / which引导的定语从句修饰名词earthquake.在从句that / which happened in San
Francisco last week 中作句子的主语.""
注意:当关系代词在从句中作主语时不能省略.a. b. 两例句意思一样. Which 要比that正式一些.
(2) 关系代词作宾语
例句: The movie wasn't very good.
We saw it last night.
a. The movie that we saw last night wasn't very good.
b. The movie which we saw last night wasn't very good.
c. The movie we saw last night wasn't very good.
我们昨晚看的那部电影不怎么样.
关系代词that / which 引导的从句修饰名词The movie.在从句that we saw last night中,that/ which 作动词saw的宾语.关系代词作动词宾语的时候可以省略.
(3) 关系代词作介词宾语
在从句中,如果关系代词是作介词的宾语,正式英语中需要前置,即,将介词置于关系代词之前.
例句: He is standing on a chair.
Is it firm enough
a. Is the chair on which he is standing firm enough
他站的那把椅子结实吗
on which he is standing 是which引导的从句,修饰the chair.Which在从句中作介词on的宾语.在英语口语和非正式的英语中,介词可以放在动词的后面.关系代词可以用which, that, 也可以省略.
b. Is the chair which he is standing on firm enough
c. Is the chair that he is standing on firm enough
d. Is the chair he is standing on firm enough
在例句b. c. d. ,从句that he is standing on中的介词后置,关系代词作介词on的宾语,可以用that/which, 也可以省略.
(4) 应该使用that的情况
有些情况下,that不能与which交换使用.
当从句修饰不定代词,如all, everything, something, little, much, none,the only, those 等时,必须用that 来引导从句.在从句中that作动词的直接宾语时,可以省略.
例: Listen, there is something (that) I must tell you.
听着,有些事情我必须告诉你.
b. 如果先行词被上述不定代词所修饰时,引导从句的关系代词也应用that.
例: All the apples (that) we picked were sent to the factory.
所有的我们摘的苹果都送到工厂去了.
c. 如果先行词被形容词最高级或序数词所修饰,从句应用that 引导.
例: This is the best novel (that) I know.
这是我所知道的最好的一部小说.
d. 如果先行词被序数词所修饰,从句应用that 引导.
例: The first English film that interested me was Gone with the Wind.
第一部使我感兴趣的英文电影是"飘".
3. 表示所有格关系
whose 用来表示所属关系,它的意思相当于:his, her, its, their等等.Whose 可以用来修饰人,也可以修饰物.whose和它所修饰的名词都置于句首.
(1) 修饰人物
The man called the police.
His wallet was stolen.
a. The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
钱包被窃的那个男人给警察打了电话.
Whose引导的从句whose wallet was stolen,修饰the man. Whose 在从句中起定语作用,修饰wallet, 意思是his.
(2) 修饰事物
(2) I'm working in the house.
Its walls are made of glass. ( The walls of the house are made of glass.)
a. I'm working in the house whose walls are made of glass.
我在那座四面墙都是玻璃的房子里工作.
whose walls = the walls of the house
whose = of which
4. 修饰表示时间的名词
When 引导的从句往往是用来修饰一个表示时间的名词,如:time, year, mon
answered Mar 14 by 118030200222 (220 points)
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定语从句有两种:限制性定语从句和非限制定语从句
修饰词有who修饰人 which修饰物 whose修饰人,看先行词
answered Mar 14 by 118030200309shz (1,030 points)
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在复合句中 , 修饰名词代词的从句叫定语从句 , 被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词 , 引导定语从句的有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that等和关系副词where, when, why等 , 关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。

1.由who引导的定语从句中 , who用作主语 , 如 : This is the boy who often helps me.

2.由whom引导的定语从句中,whom用作宾语,如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home.

3.由whose引导的定语从句中 , whose用作定语 , 如 : Do you know the girl whose skirt is white?

4.由which引导的定语从句中,which用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语,如:

The room in which there is a machine is a work shop.

The river which is in front of my house is very clean.

This is the pen which you want.

注意 :

(1)whom, which用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放在 whom、which之前 , 也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如: He is the very person whom we must take good care of.

(2)引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词which,不用that,如:I have lost

my bag, which I like very much.

(3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。

5.由that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如:

The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.

注意在下面几种情况下必须用 that引导定语从句。

(1)先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等 , 如 :

All that we have to do is to practise English.

(2)先行词被序数词形容词最高级所修饰,如

The first letter that I got from him will be kept.

(3)先行词被all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some等修饰 , 如

I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.

(4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时如

He is the only person that I want to talk with.

(5)先行词既有人又有物时,如:

They talked about persons and things that they met.

(6)当句中已有who时 , 为避免重复 , 如 : Who is the man that is giving us the

class?

6.由when, where, why引导的定语从句,如:

I don't know the reason why he was late.

This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.

I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time.

注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用 that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导。This is the house Which /that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)

7. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

(1)限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, of which等,这些关系代词都不能省略。

(2)非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明 , 没有这种从句 , 不影响主句意思的完整 , 一般用逗号把主句和从句分开 , 关系代词用 which,不用that;指人时可用who,如 : I have two brothers, who are both students.

8.如何简化定语从句

(1).定语从句简化为形容词或形容词短语作后置定语。如:

My grandfather lives in a village that is far away from here.

→My grandfather lives in a village far away from here.我祖父住在离这儿很远的一个村子。

This is a book that is worth reading.

→This is a book worth reading. 这是一本值得看的书。

(2) 定语从句简化为现在分词或现在分词短语作前置或后置定语。

The man who is standing under the tree is our English teacher.

→The man standing under the tree is our English teacher.

站在树下面的那个人是我们的英语老师。

I saw the house that was burning at that time.→I saw the burning house at that time.

当时我看到那房子在燃烧。

(3)定语从句简化为过去分词短语作后置定语。

I like to see the films which are directed by Zhang Yimou.→I like to see the films directed by Zhang Yimou. 我喜欢看张艺谋导演的电影。

She is the girl who was praised at the school meeting.→She is the girl praised at the school meeting. 她就是在校会上受表彰的那个女孩。

(4)定语从句简化为不定式作后置定语。

He is always the first person that comes to school.→He is always the first person to come to school.他总是第一个到校。

The report which will be given tomorrow is important to us.→The report to be given tomorrow is important to us. 明天要作的报告对我们很重要。

(5)定语从句简化为what 从句。

I couldn't remember the words that he said.→I couldn't remember what he said.

我记不得他说的话。

answered Mar 14 by 118030200320cyf (1,020 points)
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