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Making Sense of Grammar
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Make 和 cause 有何不同?
asked Nov 3, 2017 in Questions about English Grammar by admin (25,240 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin | 473 views

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當動詞性補語以原形(base form)出現時,就是不帶任何時態標記的「赤裸」形式:

I had him stay for the night.

had 是「使役動詞」,表示「完全且成功的操控」,後面的補語以原形出現,表示「立即果效」。「動詞原形」代表一個「失去自由」的動詞,沒有自己的時態,就沒有單獨描述事件的能耐,只能依附於主要動詞,表示在時間、空間上幾乎是同時同地發生的。

這種「完全操控」的關係和一般的「因果關係」不盡然相同:完全操控是「立即」發生, 兩個動作像「連體嬰」,共用一個時態,時空上緊密相連。但因果關係未必「立即發生」,在時間空上是可以分割的,這就是 make 和 cause 最大的不同 :

I made him leave. → 完全操控,同時同地


I caused him to leave. → 多了 to,多了時空的分隔

這兩句似乎都有「致使」的意思,但不同之處在於: make him leave 是同時同地立即發生; 但是 cause him to leave 就不必然如此緊密連結,也許一個月前我說了一句冒犯他的話, 過了一陣子他才離開 :

I made him leave right away. → 立刻發生


My words caused him to quit two weeks later. → 隔了兩星期

既然如此,其他動詞像 ask / order / tell / force 也都有「操控」的語意,為什麼後面只能加不定詞,不能用動詞原形?

I asked / told him to leave.


I asked / told him leave.(×)

那是因為這些動詞都不是表達「完全且成功的操控」,只是「意圖支使」,是主觀、 片面的希望,對方仍然保有相當自主權,可以答應、也可以拒絕。因此只能用不定詞 to-V,傳達片面的希望:

I asked / told him to leave, but he didn’t. → 我請他離開,但是他沒有照做

answered Nov 3, 2017 by admin (25,240 points)
edited Dec 4, 2017 by admin

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